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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different types of editing?

There are, in general, three types of editing that occur in the following order:

1) Developmental editing considers the foundational and structural elements of the work, such as characters, plot elements, dialogues, themes, points of view, voices, illustrations, and divisions of the work into chapters or sections. The core story or message of the text is determined and structured during this stage of the editing process.

2) Line editing, which follows developmental editing, involves the presentation of the core story or message of the text. Here, correctness, consistency, flow, and logic of the work are considered in wording, sentences and paragraphs. This is the time when an editor determines the right way to tell the story or present the message.

3) Copyediting is examining a text, not yet formatted for its final appearance in print or electronic form, for errors in punctuation, capitalization, spelling, syntax and formatting by the author, and proposing corrections that maintain the original intent of the creator of the work.

Is copyediting the same as proofreading?

Although many people use the terms interchangeably, copyediting and proofreading are different operations. Proofreading involves reviewing text that has been formatted for its intended appearance. This is the responsibility of the publisher of the text.

What types of editing services do you provide?

We provide developmental editing and line editing services for our clients. As a courtesy, we will perform copyediting on the works on which we perform developmental editing and line editing at the conclusion of our editing work.

Do you write text or design graphics for customers?

No. All activities involved in the creation and marketing of a text, including authorship, illustration, graphic design and preparation of marketing copy, are the responsibilities of our clients.

Do you handle all types of submissions?

We do not work with résumés or cover letters for employment-related matters. Also, we do not handle pornography, materials containing slurs or exhorting violence against specific persons or groups by the authors, or materials known to be libelous or contain falsehoods.

In certain instances, KeenReader may refer clients to or collaborate with outside parties to provide services listed on our Services page. We will do this if we believe that such outside parties are more knowledgeable in the matters covered in a work submitted to us or otherwise better able to provide such services than our editing staff. KeenReader will refer clients to outside parties or collaborate with any outside party to provide services to any client only by express permission of that client. In such instances, KeenReader’s liability for such services is limited to services provided by the active participation of its officers, directors, agents and employees.  No outside party to whom KeenReader may refer clients or with whom KeenReader may collaborate is an agent of KeenReader for purposes of determining liability to a client.

We reserve the right to return submissions to our customers at our discretion, and to refund, in full or in any part, all payments received in connection with such submissions.

If a text contains information known to be factually incorrect but the author, upon query, will not allow us to provide the correct information, we will either return the submission or note that the information is factually incorrect. KeenReader assumes no liability in any instance where its editors have noted that information in a submission is factually incorrect.

What changes will you make to text?

Depending on the services requested, our editors will make recommendations for changes to elements of the work including proper names, dialogues, plots, structuring, factual presentation, exposition, points of view, voices, and other elements (note: this is not an exhaustive list). However, no actual changes will be made to original materials provided by clients. The editors will make working copies of all materials provided to KeenReader and make changes in the working copies only.

What changes will you make to graphics?

We will review submissions of graphic material for appropriateness and consistency to the text, proper composition, correct scale and placement, and appropriate captions. Again, our editors will make changes to graphics only in working copies of submitted materials, not the original materials provided by clients.

What if the publication is electronic?

For websites, E-books, weblog articles, etc., in addition to services provided during our Developmental Editing, Line Editing, and Copyediting work, we will review submissions for functionality, ease of use, avoidance of excess (unnecessary or distracting flash, animation, video, etc.), and coordination with the text of all hyperlinks, tools, and media.

What if the client disagrees with the changes you propose?

Whenever we see an ambiguity or must make a judgment call in the course of editing, we will make a list of queries to the author. This list will be submitted to the author together with the proposed revision. It is strictly up to the author to determine what he or she wishes the work to convey.

Do you publish submissions?

No. All activities involved in publication, including securing copyright protection, printing, and recording and publishing works in electronic formats, are the responsibilities of our clients and/or their agents and/or publishers.

Do you represent authors?

We do not function as agents or representatives of our clients for purposes of marketing of submissions, presentation to publishers, negotiations of sales of subsidiary rights, or legal representation in situations regarding copyrights.  

Our Marketing services include researching and recommending agents and publishers to our clients, editing query letters and marketing copy, and post-submission formatting requested by agents and publishers.